Urban-rural disparities of antenatal care in South East Asia: a case study in the Philippines and Indonesia

Wulandari R.D., Laksono A.D., Rohmah N.

Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Campus C Mulyorejo, Surabaya, 60115, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development of The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Percetakan Negara 29, Jakarta, 10560, Indonesia; Faculty of Health Science, Muhammadiyah University of Jember, Gumuk Kerang, Karangrejo, Kec. Sumbersari, Jawa Timur, Kabupaten Jember, East Java 68124, Indonesia


Background: The government is obliged to guarantee equal access to antenatal care (ANC) between urban and rural areas. This study aimed to analyze urban-rural disparities in ≥4 ANC visits during pregnancy in the Philippines and Indonesia. Methods: The study processed data from the 2017 PDHS and the 2017 IDHS. The analysis unit was women aged 15–49 years old who had given birth in the last 5 years. The weighted sample size was 7992 respondents in the Philippines and 14,568 respondents in Indonesia. Apart from ANC as the dependent variable, other variables analyzed were residence, age, husband/partner, education, parity, and wealth. Determination of urban-rural disparities using binary logistic regression. Results: The results show that women in the urban Philippines are 0.932 times more likely than women in the rural Philippines to make ≥4 ANC visits. On the other side, women in urban Indonesia are more likely 1.255 times than women in rural Indonesia to make ≥4 ANC visits. Apart from the type of residence place (urban-rural), five other tested multivariate variables also proved significant contributions to ANC’s use in both countries, i.e., age, have a husband/partner, education, parity, and wealth status. Conclusions: The study concluded that disparities exist between urban and rural areas utilizing ANC in the Philippines and Indonesia. Pregnant women in the rural Philippines have a better chance of making ≥4 ANC visits. Meanwhile, pregnant women in urban Indonesia have a better chance of making ≥4 ANC visits. © 2021, The Author(s).

Antenatal care; Disparity; Mother and child health; Southeast Asia; Urban-rural


BMC Public Health

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd

Volume 21, Issue 1, Art No 1221, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85108834692&doi=10.1186%2fs12889-021-11318-2&partnerID=40&md5=47819fddfd890c83d786860cd6c77b49

doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11318-2

Issn: 14712458

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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