The effect of water level in vertical aquaculture systems on production performance, biochemistry, hematology, and histology of Anguilla bicolor bicolor

Harianto E., Supriyono E., Budiardi T., Affandi R., Hadiroseyani Y.

Doctoral Program Student, Graduate School, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University, Jalan Agatis, IPB Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia; Aquaculture Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Jambi Batanghari University, Jl. Slamet Ryadi, Broni Jambi, 36122, Indonesia; Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University, Jalan Agatis, IPB Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia; Department of Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University, Jalan Agatis, IPB Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia


The water level in the cultivation of eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) is an important study in order to provide the optimal water level for cultivation. Optimizing the water level will affect the substitution of respiration energy with energy to grow. In addition, the water level information is related to the efficiency of water use for eel production in the future. Information on water level for eel production is still very limited, so this research is necessary to do. A total of 120 eel elver (initial weight 13.66 ± 0.09 g) were collected from eel companies in Bogor City, Indonesia. Fish were reared in vertical aquaculture systems with a stocking density of 10 fish per container for 60 days. The artificial feed containing 55% protein given as much as 3–5% of the biomass. Absorption and water replacement were done 20% per day. The result of this research showed that fish weight increased with an average of 33.45 ± 0.33 g. Different water levels had an impact to KKb, SGOT, ALP, and He. There was erosion of the skin epidermis and necrosis of the gill filaments due to the adaptation process. Water quality was within the optimum range for all treatments and 1.5 cm water level is recommended for maintenance (SGOT, ALP and He values were closest to normal values). © 2021, The Author(s).


Scientific Reports

Publisher: Nature Research

Volume 11, Issue 1, Art No 11318, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90912-1

Issn: 20452322

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


Arai, T., Kadir, S.R.A., Chino, N., Year-round spawning by a tropical catadromous eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor (2016) Aquat. Ecol., 163 (2), p. 37; Tesch, F.W., (2003) The Eel, , Blackwell; Japan Marine Product Photo Materials Association (1977) 225 Pp; Affandi, R., Strategi pemanfaatan sumberdaya ikan sidat (Anguilla spp.) di Indonesia (2005) J. Lktiologi Indones., 5 (2), pp. 77-81; Aoyama, J., Live history and evolution of migration in catadromous eels (Genus Anguilla) (2009) Aquaculture BioSci Monogr, 2 (1), pp. 1-42; Hyde, D.A., Moon, T.W., Perry, S.F., Physiological consequences of prolonged aerial exposure in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata: Blood respiratory and acid-base status (1987) J. Comp. Physiol. B, 157 (5), pp. 635-642; McArthur, C.P., Haematology of the New Zealand freshwater eels Anguilla australis schmidtii and A. dieffenbachii (1977) N.Z. J. Zool., 4 (1), pp. 5-20; Cao, Q., Gu, J., Wang, D., Liang, F., Zhang, H., Li, X., Yin, S., Physiological mechanism of osmoregulatory adaptation in anguillid eels (2018) Fish. Physiol. Biochem., 44 (2), pp. 423-433. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC1cXhtFKqtbg%3D, PID: 29344774; Harianto, E., Budiardi, T., Sudrajat, A.O., Growth performance of 7-g Anguilla bicolor bicolor at different density (2014) J. Akuakultur Indones., 13, pp. 120-131; Diansyah, S., Budiardi, T., Sudrajat, A.O., Growth performance of 3-g Anguilla bicolor bicolor at different density (2014) J. Akuakultur Indones., 13, pp. 46-53; Scabra, A.R., Budiardi, T., Djokosetiyanto, D., Production performance of Anguilla bicolor bicolor with the addition of CaCO3 into culture media (2016) J. Akuakultur Indones., 1, pp. 1-7; Handajani, H., Widanarni, Setiawati (2018) M., Budiardi, T. & Sujono. Evaluation of Digestibility and Ammonia Excretion of Fish Meal and Fish Silage Fed to Juvenile Indonesian Shortfin Eel (Anguilla Bicolor). AACL Bioflux, 11, pp. 495-504; Anguilla japonica (2009) J. Xie, p. V. , Crespi, M. New. (Eds.), Cultured aquatic species fact sheets. CD-ROM (multilingual); Handoyo, B., Garnawansah, G., Murdjani, S.A., Supendi, P., Paket teknologi pendederan dan pembesaran ikan sidat di BLUPPB Karawang. Aquac. Bus (2016) Food Sec., 1 (1), pp. 1-13; Mordenti, O., Di Biase, A., Casalini, A., Emmanuele, P., Melotti, P., Roncarati, A., Growth performances and natural diet of European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) reared in muddy and sandy ponds (2016) Aquat. Liv. Resour., 29 (1), p. 105. , &; Methling, C., Tudorache, C., Skov, P.V., Steffensen, J.F., Pop up satellite tags impair swimming performance and energetics of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (2011) PLoS ONE, 6 (6). , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXns1yjurc%3D, PID: 21687674; Affandi, R., (2015) Teknologi Pengembangan Perikanan Dan Kelautan Untuk Memperkuat Ketahanan Pangan Serta Memacu Perekonomian Nasional Secara Berkelanjutan, pp. 151-200. , Pengembangan sumber daya ikan sidat (Anguilla spp.) di Indonesia, M. S. Baskoro, IPB Press; Usui, A.E.C., (1974) 186 Pp, , Fishing News, West Byfleet & London; Harianto, E., Supriyono, E., Budiardi, T., Affandi, R., Hadiroseyani, Y., Production performance and physiology response of Anguilla bicolor bicolor rearing with a wet, damp and dry system (2020) J. Iktiologi Indones., 20, pp. 117-132; Taufiq-Spj, N., Sunaryo, S., Wirasatria, A., Sugianto, D.N., The use of water exchange for feeding rate and growth promotion of shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor in recirculating water system. (IOP Publishing Ltd (2017) Web.; Taufiq-Spj, N., Hutabarat, J., Trianto, A., Wirasatria, A., Indarj, A., Suryono, S., Ario, R., Pratikto, I., The use of different water volume to measure the growth and survival rates of Anguilla bicolor caught from Nusawungu riverines, Cilacap, Indonesia (2020) AACL Bioflux, 13, pp. 1473-1482; Goddek, S., Joyce, A., Kotzen, B., Burnell, G.M., (2019) Aquaponics food production systems-combined aquaculture and hydroponic production technologies for the future, , Springer; Touliatos, D., Dodd, I.C., McAinsh, M., Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics (2016) Food Energy Secur., 5, pp. 184-191. , PID: 27635244; Can soil-less crop production be a sustainable option for soil conservation and future agriculture (2017) Land Use Policy, 69, pp. 102-105. ,; Delaide, B., Delhaye, G., Dermience, M., Gott, J., Soyeurt, H., Jijakli, M.H., Plant and fish production performance, nutrient mass balances, energy and water use of the PAFF Box, a small-scale aquaponic system (2017) Aquacult. Eng., 78, pp. 130-139; Jeffs, A.G., James, P., Sea-cage culture of the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii in New Zealand (2001) J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 52, pp. 1419-1424; Mud crab aquaculture—A practical manual (2011) FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, p. 78; (1977) Nutrient Requirements of Warmwater Fishes, , National Academy Science, Washington; Blaxhall, P.C., Daishley, K.W., Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood (1973) J. Fish Biol., 5, pp. 577-581; Wedemeyer, G.A., Yasutake, W.T., (1977) Clinical Methods for the Assessment of the Effect Environmental Stress on Fish Health. Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Technical, , New York; Basic Hematology and Serology for Fish Health Programs (2013) Paper Presented in Second Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture “Aquatic Animal Health and the Environment”., pp. 185-202. , 2529th October; Angka, S.L., Mokoginta, I., Hamid, H., (1990) Anatomi Dan Histologi Banding Beberapa Ikan Air Tawar Yang Dibudidayakan Di Indonesia. Departemen Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi, , Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor; (2006) Standard Methods for the Examination of the Water and Wastewater, , Washington DC, American Public Health Association; Tseng, K.F., Wu, K.L., The ammonia removal cycle for a submerged biofilter used in a recirculating eel culture system (2004) Aquacult. Eng., 31 (1-2), pp. 17-30; Hartnoll, R.G., Growth (1982) The Biology of Crustacea, , Able, L. G., Academic Press, New York; Portalia, N.K., Sulmartiwi, L., Rahardja, B.S., The growth and survival rate in lettuce aquaponic systems (Latuca sativa) of eels in various stocking densities of eel (Monopterus albus) (2019) IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., 236, p. 012005; Affandi, R., Budiardi, T., Wahju, R.I., Taurusman, A.A., Pemeliharaan ikan sidat dengan sistem air bersirkulasi (2013) J. Ilmu Pertanian Indones., 18, pp. 55-60; (2009) Fish. Aquacult, 1, pp. 11-13; Baras, E., Raynaud, T., Slembrouck, J., Caruso, D., Cochet, C., Legendre, M., Interactions between temperature and size on the growth, size heterogeneity, mortality, and cannibalism in cultured larvae and juveniles of the Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage) (2011) Aquac. Res., 42, pp. 260-276; Gracia, L.A., Rosas, V.C., Brito, P.R., Effects of salinity on physiological conditions in juvenile common snook Centropomus undecimalis (2006) Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 145, pp. 340-345. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtVyitL3E; Saputra, A., Budiardi, T., Supriyono, E., Production performance of eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor with the addition of calcium carbonate (2016) J. Akuakultur Indones., 15, pp. 56-62; Barton, B.A., Iwama, G.K., Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effects of corticosteroids (1991) Annu. Rev. Fish Dis., 1, pp. 3-26; Barton, B.A., Stress in finfish: Past, present, and future—A historical perspective (1997) Fish Stress and Health in Aquaculture, , Iwama, G. K., Pickering, A. D., Sumpter, J. P., Schreck, C. B, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Begg, K., Pankhurst, N.W., Endocrine and metabolic responses to stress in a laboratory population of the tropical damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (2004) J. Fish Biol., 64, pp. 133-145. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXitVejurY%3D; Rottmann, R.W., Floyd, R.F., Durborow, R., The role of stress in fish disease (1992) SRAC Publ., 474, p. 4; Sadler, J., Wells, R.M.G., Pankhurst, P.M., Pankhurst, N.W., Blood oxygen transport, rheology and hematological responses to confinement stress in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar (2000) Aquaculture, 184, pp. 349-361. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXit1Wjtrs%3D; Campbell, T.W., Blood biochemistry in lower vertebrates (2004) 55Th Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) and 39Th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) (Ed). (ACVP and ASVCP, , Middleton WI; Wagner, T., Congleton, J.L., Blood chemistry correlates of nutritional condition, tissue damage, and stress in migrating juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (2004) Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 61, pp. 1066-1074. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhtVKnsbjJ; Tavares-Dias, M., Moraes, F.R., Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for farmed channel catfish (2007) J. Fish Biol., 71, pp. 383-388. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVemsbbK; Ajeniyi, S.A., Solomon, R.J., Urea and creatinine of Clarias Gariepinus in three different commercial ponds (2014) Nat. Sci., 12, pp. 124-138; Arthanari, M., Dhanapalan, S., Assessment of the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of three commercially important freshwater fishes in river Cauvery Velur, Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India (2016) Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud., 4, pp. 155-159; Fazio, F., Fish hematology analysis as an important tool of aquaculture: a review (2018) Aquaculture, 500, pp. 237-242; Siddiqui, N., Seasonal, size and comparative study of plasma proteins of four air breathing freshwater fishes (1977) Indian Acad. Sci, 85, pp. 384-390. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DyaE2sXlsVyqtr4%3D; Mlay, P.S., Seth, M., Balthazary, S.T., Chibunda, R.T., Phiri, E.C.J.H., Balemba, O.B., Total plasma proteins and hemoglobin levels as affected by worm burden in freshwater fish in Morogoro, Tanzania (2007) Livestock Res. Rural Dev., 19, pp. 1-8; Sancho, E., Andreau, Ó., Villarroel, M.J., Fernández-Vega, C., Tecles, F., Martínez-Subiela, S., Ceron, J.J., Ferrando, M.D., European eel (Anguilla anguilla) plasma biochemistry alerts about propanil stress (2017) J. Pestic. Sci., 42, pp. 7-15. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC1MXhsFGktr%2FF, PID: 30363130; Tan, C., Sun, D., Tan, H., Liu, W., Luo, G., Wei, X., Effects of stocking density on growth, body composition, digestive enzyme levels and blood biochemical parameters of Anguilla marmorata in a recirculating aquaculture system (2018) Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 18, pp. 9-16; Kulkarni, R., Pruthviraj, C.B., Blood creatinine and some enzyme levels in four species of indian carp fishes collected from a local aquatic body (2016) Int. Lett. Nat. Sci., 60, pp. 13-17; Gabriel, U.U., George, A.D.I., Plasma enzymes in Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of Roundup (glyphosate) (2005) Environ. Ecol., 23, pp. 271-276. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmvVGnurg%3D; Erlacher-Reid, C., Hoffman, W.E., Priede, M., Pulver, R., Tuttle, A.D., Plasma biochemistry values of recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus) (2011) J. Zoo Wildl. Med., 42, pp. 671-679. , PID: 22204062; Kulkarni, R., Barad, V., Haematological and blood biochemical changes in the fresh water fish, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) exposed to acidic medium (2015) Int. Lett. Nat. Sci., 45, pp. 27-33; Hidayaturrahmah, H., Muhamati, M., Santoso, H.B., Profil SGPT dan SGOT Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus L.) di Sungai Riam Kanan Kalimantan Selatan (2015) J. Pharmasci, 2, pp. 38-46; Sancho, E., Andreau, Ó., Villarroel, M.J., Fernández-Vega, C., Tecles, F., Martínez-Subiela, S., Ceron, J.J., Ferrando, M.D., European eel (Anguilla anguilla) plasma biochemistry alerts about propanil stress (2017) J. Pestic. Sci., 42 (1), pp. 7-15. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC1MXhsFGktr%2FF, PID: 30363130; Sripriya, R., Kumar, K., Rajendran, K., Seasonal variation of serum enzymes of Indian freshwater eel Anguila bicolor (Mcclelanand) (2015) Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Studies, 3, pp. 50-54; Satheeshkumar, P., Ananthan, G., Senthilkumar, D., Khan, A.B., Jeevanantham, K., Comparative investigation on haematological and biochemical studies on wild marine teleost fihes from Vellar estuary, southeast coast of India (2012) Comp. Clin. Path, 21, pp. 275-281. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XnvFOitb8%3D; (2007) A., Altun, T., Çevik, F., Cengizler, I., Nevsat, E. & Genç, E. Comparative Study of Some Haematological Parameters in European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla L. 1758) Caught from Different Regions of the Ceyhan River (Adana, Turkey). J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 24, pp. 167-171; Ponsen, S., Narkkong, N.A., Pamok, S., Aengwanich, W., Comparative hematological values, morphometric and morphological observation of the blood cell in captured and culture Asian eel, Monopterus albus (2009) Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 4, pp. 32-36. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtlyqsrrK; Sasongko, H., Effect of acute administration of eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) oil to hematological parameters in mice (2018) Proceedings of the 1St Muhammadiyah International Conference on Health and Pharmaceutical Development (Mich-Phd, p. 2018. , East Jakarta, Indonesia; Clauss, T.M., Dove, A.D.M., Arnold, J.E., Hematologic disorders of fish, veterinary clinics of North America (2008) Ex. Anim. Pract., 11, pp. 445-462; Ren, D.R., Ren, J., Xing, Y.Y., Guo, Y.M., Wu, Y.B., Yang, G.C., Mao, H.R., Huang, L.S., A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting male reproductive traits in a White Duroc Chinese Erhualian resource population (2008) J. Anim. Sci., 87, pp. 17-23. , PID: 18599669, COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXptFOnsQ%3D%3D; Caruso, G., Genovese, L., Maricchiolo, G., Modica, A., Haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters as stress indicators in Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata farmed in off-shore cages (2005) Aquacult. Int., 13, pp. 67-73. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXit1Olt7g%3D; Fekri, L., Affandi, R., Rahardjo, M.F., Budiardi, T., Simanjuntak, C.P.H., Pertumbuhan elver Anguilla bicolor McClelland, 1844 pasca pembantutan yang dipelihara di media semi alami (2019) J. Iktiologi Indones., 19 (2), pp. 243-257; Billett, H.H., Hemoglobin and hematocrit (1990) Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 151 P, , Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, Butterworths, Boston; Van Ginneken, V., Ballieux, B., Willemze, R., Coldenhoff, K., Lentjes, E., Antonissen, E., Haenen, O., van den Thillart, V.G., Hematology patterns of migrating European eels and the role of EVEX virus (2005) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol., 140, pp. 97-102. , PID: 15792628, COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXisFGrtr0%3D; Gross, W.B., Siegel, H.S., Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens (2006) Avian Dis., 27, pp. 972-979; Boon, J.H., Cannaerts, V.M.H., Augustijn, H., Machiels, M.A.M., De Charleroy, D., Ollevier, F., The effect of different infection levels with infective larvae of Anguillicola crassus on haematological parameters of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (1990) Aquaculture, 87, pp. 243-253. , &; Kurniawan, K., Prayitno, S.B., Sarjito, S., Angela, M.L., Pengaruh ekstrak daun sirsak (Annona muricata L.) terhadap profil darah dan kelulushidupan ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus Var. Sangkuriang) yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (2013) J. Aquacult. Manag. Technol., 2, pp. 50-62; Johansson-Sjobeck, M.L., Larsson, A., Effects of inorganic lead on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and haematological variables in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri (1979) Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 8, pp. 419-431. , COI: 1:STN:280:DyaL3c%2FhvVylsA%3D%3D, PID: 485210; Lee, N.S., Kobayashi, J., Miyazaki, T., Gill filament necrosis in farmed Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica (Temminck & Schlegel), infected with Herpesvirus anguillae (1999) J. Fish Dis., 22, pp. 457-463; Tang, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, T., Li, J., Wang, X., Zhang, W., Zeng, G., Gua, L., Acute toxicity of divalent mercury ion to Anguilla japonica from seawater and freshwater aquaculture and its effects on tissue structure (2019) Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 16, p. 1965. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC1MXitFyju7rE; Caruso, G., Maricchiolo, G., Micale, V., Genovese, L., Caruso, R., Denaro, M.G., Physiological responses to starvation in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): effects on haematological, biochemical, non-specific immune parameters and skin structures (2009) Fish. Physiol. Biochem., 36, pp. 71-83. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXjs1Olu7o%3D; Molnar, P., England, P., Martinod, J., Mantle dynamics, uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Indian Monsoon (1993) Rev. Geophys., 31, p. 357; Hangalapura, B., Zwart, R., Engelsma, M., Haenen, O., Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus anguillae (HVA) in juvenile European eel Anguilla anguilla after infection by bath immersion (2007) Dis. Aquat. Org., 78, pp. 13-22; Capaldoa, C., Gay, F., Laforgia, V., Changes in the gills of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) after chronic exposure to environmental cocaine concentration (2018) Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 169, pp. 112-119. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC1cXitFyqsbbM; Tsukamoto, K., Kuroki, M., (2014) Eels and Humans. Humanity and the Sea. 177 P, , Springer, Japan; Shephard, K.L., Functions for fish mucus (1994) Rev. Fish. Biol. Fish., 4, pp. 401-429; Alexander, J.B., Ingram, G.A., Noncellular non-specific defence mechanisms of fish (1992) Annu. Rev. Fish. Dis., 2, pp. 249-279; Methling, C., (2015) Cardio-Respiratory Physiology of the European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla) in Extreme Environments. Marine Biological Section; Tamam, O.A.S., The aetiology, histopathology, and ultrastructural features of perianal erythema (red anus syndrome) in the european eel (Anguilla anguilla) (2014) PLoS ONE, 9 (3). , PID: 24608418, COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsVKhsr3N; Luo, M., Guan, R., Li, Z., Jin, H., The effects of water temperature on the survival, feeding, and growth of the juveniles of Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla bicolor pacifica (2013) Aquaculture, 400-401, pp. 61-64; Pusat penyuluhan kelautan dan perikanan, KKP RI (2011) 59 P; Ritonga, T., (2014) The Response of Eel Fish Seed Anguilla Bicolor Bicolor to the Degree of Acidity (Ph), , Mini Thesis, Bogor, Institut Pertanian; Tseng, K.F., Wu, K.L., The ammonia removal cycle for a submerged biofilter used in a recirculating eel culture system (2004) Aquacult. Eng., 31, pp. 17-30; Affandi, R., Suhenda, N., Teknik Budidaya Ikan Sidat (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) (2003) Prosiding Sumberdaya Perikanan Sidat Tropik, pp. 47-54; Herianti, I., Environmental engineering to spur development of Anguilla bicolor (2005) J. Oseanol. Limnol. Indones., 37, pp. 25-40; Knosche, R., An effective biofilter type for eel culture in recirculating systems (1994) Aquacult. Eng., 13, pp. 71-82; Li, D., Liu, S., Remote monitoring of water quality for intensive fish culture (2013) Smart Sens. Real-Time Water Qual. Monit. Smart Sens. Meas. Instrum., 4, pp. 217-238; Yamagata, Y., Niwa, M., Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonia to eel Anguilla japonica (1982) Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 48, pp. 171-176. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DyaL38XhslGltLc%3D; Chaudhary, R., Pillai, R.S., Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Sasthamcottah lake (India) with reference to suitability for aquaculture (2008) J. Environ. Res. Dev., 2, pp. 402-405. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXoslers78%3D; Wahyudi, H., Affandi, R., Hariyadi, S., (2015) Response of Eel Seed Anguilla Bicolor Bicolor to Ammonia (NH 3) on the Maintenance Media [Mini Thesis], , Bogor, Institut Pertanian Bogor; (2017) Fisheries Science Series, , Springer, Tokyo; Bregnballe, J.A., (2015) Guide to: recirculation aquaculture: an introduction to the new environmentally friendly and highly productive closed fish farming systems, , Eurofish; Goddek, S., Joyce, A., Kotzen, B., (2019), Burnell, G. M. Aquaponics food production systems-combined aquaculture and hydroponic production technologies for the future. (Springer; Chen, S., Timmons, M.B., Aneshansley, D.J., Bisogni, J.J., Suspended solids characteristics from recirculating aquacultural systems and design implications (1993) Aquaculture, 112, pp. 143-155; Couturier, M., Trofimencoff, T., Buil, J.U., Conroy, J., Solids removal at a recirculating salmon-smolt farm (2009) Aquacult. Eng., 41, pp. 71-77

Indexed by Scopus

Leave a Comment