Optimization of OPEFB lignocellulose transformation process through ionic liquid [TEA][HSO4] based pretreatment

Nurdin M., Abimanyu H., Putriani H., Setiawan L.O.M.I., Maulidiyah M., Wibowo D., Ansharullah A., Natsir M., Salim L.O.A., Arham Z., Mustapa F.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi 93231, Indonesia; Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia; Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah Kendari, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi 93117, Indonesia; Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi 93231, Indonesia; Department of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Kendari, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi 93116, Indonesia; Department of Aquaqulture, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi dan Kesehatan Avicenna, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi 93116, Indonesia


Abstract

Research on the transformation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches (OPEFB) through pretreatment process using ionic liquid triethylammonium hydrogen sulphate (IL [TEA][HSO4]) was completed. The stages of the transformation process carried out were the synthesis of IL with the one-spot method, optimization of IL composition and pretreatment temperature, and IL recovery. The success of the IL synthesis stage was analyzed by FTIR, H-NMR and TGA. Based on the results obtained, it showed that IL [TEA][HSO4] was successfully synthesized. This was indicated by the presence of IR absorption at 1/λ = 2814.97 cm−1, 1401.07 cm−1, 1233.30 cm−1 and 847.92 cm−1 which were functional groups for NH, CH3, CN and SO2, respectively. These results were supported by H-NMR data at δ (ppm) = 1.217–1.236 (N–CH2–CH3), 3.005–3.023 (–H), 3.427–3.445 (N–H+) and 3.867 (N+H3). The TGA results showed that the melting point and decomposition temperature of the IL were 49 °C and 274.3 °C, respectively. Based on pretreatment optimization, it showed that the best IL composition for cellulose production was 85 wt%. Meanwhile, temperature optimization showed that the best temperature was 120 °C. In these two optimum conditions, the cellulose content was obtained at 45.84 wt%. Testing of IL [TEA][HSO4] recovery performance for reuse has shown promising results. During the pretreatment process, IL [TEA][HSO4] recovery effectively increased the cellulose content of OPEFB to 29.13 wt% and decreased the lignin content to 32.57%. The success of the recovery process is indicated by the increasing density properties of IL [TEA][HSO4]. This increase occurs when using a temperature of 80–100 °C. The overall conditions obtained from this work suggest that IL [TEA][HSO4] was effective during the transformation process of OPEFB into cellulose. This shows the potential of IL [TEA][HSO4] in the future in the renewable energy sector. © 2021, The Author(s).


Journal

Scientific Reports

Publisher: Nature Research

Volume 11, Issue 1, Art No 11338, Page – , Page Count


Journal Link: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85107356660&doi=10.1038%2fs41598-021-90891-3&partnerID=40&md5=70bab2fb8b07b6d0c4b839cc13fd4304

doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90891-3

Issn: 20452322

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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