Monitoring post-release behavioural activity of captive-bred urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) at togh managara safari park khyber pakhtunkhwa, pakistan [Monitoramento da atividade comportamental pós-liberação de urial criado em cativeiro (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) em togh managara safari park khyber pakhtunkhwa, paquistão]

Khattak R.H., Zhensheng L., Liwei T., Pairah P., Zhirong Z., Roberts N.J.

College of Wildlife and Protected Areas, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China; Gunung Halimun Salak National Park Agency, Jalan Rya Cipanas Kec. Kabandungan, Kabupaten Sukabumi, Jawa Barat, Indonesia


The Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) is a globally threatened wild sheep species. In Pakistan the species is legally protected and bred in captivity to release into natural habitats to reinforce wild populations. Vigilance and feeding are critical to survival, though the degree to which captive-bred animals exhibit these behaviours post-release has rarely been investigated. We monitored the daily behaviours of five adult urial after release and classifying behaviours from 0600 hrs to 1800 hrs, replicating each one-hour period twice and recording four observations of each animal per hour. At the herd level, vigilance and feeding behaviours were exhibited equally. Males and females invested equal time in feeding, males were more vigilant (p = 0.001) and more aggressive (p = 0.010), and females were more restful (p = 0.019) or engaged in grooming (p = 0.044) or locomotion (p = 0.002). Females spent more time feeding than being vigilant (p = 0.002). Males maintained high levels of vigilance throughout the day. Patterns of resting 1300 hrs to 1500 hrs and feeding in early morning and late afternoon were common for both sexes. Behaviours classified as ‘other’ were exhibited equally between sexes. Our results reveal positive indications of captive-bred urial balancing threat detection and energy acquisition post-release and exhibiting natural behaviours and activity patterns. We encourage assessment of survivorship to evaluate long-term effectiveness of captive breeding and release as a candidate restoration programme. © 2022, Instituto Internacional de Ecologia. All rights reserved.

Feeding; Large herbivore; Reintroduction; S: animal behaviour; Vigilance


Brazilian Journal of Biology

Publisher: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia

Volume 82, Issue , Art No e243250, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1590/1519-6984.243250

Issn: 15196984

Type: All Open Access, Gold


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