Microstructural behavior of magnetorheological elastomer undergoing durability evaluation by stress relaxation

Johari M.A.F., Mazlan S.A., Nasef M.M., Ubaidillah U., Nordin N.A., Aziz S.A.A., Johari N., Nazmi N.

Engineering Materials and Structures (eMast) ikhoza, Malaysia-Japan, International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 54100, Malaysia; Advanced Materials Research Group, Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 54100, Malaysia; Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, J1. Ir. Sutami 36A, Ketingan, Surakarta, Central Java 57126, Indonesia


Abstract

The widespread use of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) materials in various applications has yet to be limited due to the fact that there are substantial deficiencies in current experimental and theoretical research on its microstructural durability behavior. In this study, MRE composed of silicon rubber (SR) and 70 wt% of micron-sized carbonyl iron particles (CIP) was prepared and subjected to stress relaxation evaluation by torsional shear load. The microstructure and particle distribution of the obtained MRE was evaluated by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The influence of constant low strain at 0.01% is the continuing concern within the linear viscoelastic (LVE) region of MRE. Stress relaxation plays a significant role in the life cycle of MRE and revealed that storage modulus was reduced by 8.7%, normal force has weakened by 27%, and stress performance was reduced by 6.88% along approximately 84,000 s test duration time. This time scale was the longest ever reported being undertaken in the MRE stress relaxation study. Novel micro-mechanisms that responsible for the depleted performance of MRE was obtained by microstructurally observation using FESEM and in-phase mode of atomic force microscope (AFM). Attempts have been made to correlate strain localization produced by stress relaxation, with molecular deformation in MRE amorphous matrix. Exceptional attention was focused on the development of molecular slippage, disentanglement, microplasticity, microphase separation, and shear bands. The relation between these microstructural phenomena and the viscoelastic properties of MRE was diffusely defined and discussed. The presented MRE is homogeneous with uniform distribution of CIP. The most significant recent developments of systematic correlation between the effects of microstructural deformation and durability performance of MRE under stress relaxation has been observed and evaluated. © 2021, The Author(s).


Journal

Scientific Reports

Publisher: Nature Research

Volume 11, Issue 1, Art No 10936, Page – , Page Count


Journal Link: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85106950484&doi=10.1038%2fs41598-021-90484-0&partnerID=40&md5=d93f27cb232d5c35eb67996ec36ad1ed

doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90484-0

Issn: 20452322

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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