Improved permeate flux and rejection of ultrafiltration membranes prepared from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle waste

Kusumocahyo S.P., Ambani S.K., Marceline S.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Life Sciences & Technology, Swiss German University, Tangerang, 15143, Indonesia


The vast amount of not-recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle waste is a serious threat to the environment. In order to utilize the waste, PET ultrafiltration membranes were prepared using PET bottle waste as the raw material by using the phase inversion technique. Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) was used as the additive for the membranes. PET resin was also used as the membrane material to compare the properties of the membrane from PET bottle waste and those from the PET resin. The membrane prepared from PET bottle waste and that prepared from PET resin showed similar membrane characteristics such as IR spectra, morphology, hydrophilicity and porosity, indicating that instead of using PET resin, PET bottle waste can be utilized as a source of the polymer material to fabricate low-cost membranes. The morphology, hydrophilicity and porosity of the membranes were strongly affected by the PEG 400 concentration. The analysis of the membrane morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that the membranes had an asymmetric structure that consisted of a macroporous cross section and a smooth active layer. Increasing the PEG 400 concentration resulted in a smaller pore size, however the hydrophilicity and the porosity of the membranes increased. As a result, the membranes showed an increase in both permeate flux and rejection with increasing concentration of PEG 400 as observed from the results of the ultrafiltration experiments. Using Bovine Serum Albumin as a solute model in the feed, high values of rejection of up to 94% were achieved. Thus, ultrafiltration membranes with improved permeate flux and rejection could be prepared from PET bottle waste by the addition of PEG 400 as the additive. © 2021, The Author(s).

Plastic bottle; Polyethylene terephthalate (PET); Recycle; Ultrafiltration membrane; Water treatment


Sustainable Environment Research

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd

Volume 31, Issue 1, Art No 19, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1186/s42834-021-00091-x

Issn: 24682039

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


Xu, Z.W., Wu, T.F., Shi, J., Teng, K.Y., Wang, W., Ma, M.J., Photocatalytic antifouling PVDF ultrafiltration membranes based on synergy of graphene oxide and TiO2 for water treatment (2016) J Membrane Sci, 520, pp. 281-293; Benitez, F.J., Acero, J.L., Real, F.J., Garcia, C., Removal of phenyl-urea herbicides in ultrapure water by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes (2009) Water Res., 43, pp. 267-276; Yee, K.W.K., Wiley, D.E., Bao, J., Whey protein concentrate production by continuous ultrafiltration: operability under constant operating conditions (2007) J Membrane Sci, 290, pp. 125-137; Enevoldsen, A.D., Hansen, E.B., Jonsson, G., Electro-ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions (2007) J Membrane Sci, 299, pp. 28-37; Kim, I.C., Lee, K.H., Effect of poly (ethylene glycol) 200 on the formation of a polyetherimide asymmetric membrane and its performance in aqueous solvent mixture permeation (2004) J Membrane Sci, 230, pp. 183-188; Mokhena, T.C., Luyt, A.S., Development of multifunctional nano/ultrafiltration membrane based on a chitosan thin film on alginate electrospun nanofibres (2017) J Clean Prod, 156, pp. 470-479; Yong, M., Zhang, Y.Q., Sun, S., Liu, W., Properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ultrafiltration membrane improved by lignin: hydrophilicity and antifouling (2019) J Membrane Sci, 575, pp. 50-59; Rana, D., Matsuura, T., Surface modifications for antifouling membranes (2010) Chem Rev, 110, pp. 2448-2471; Zhang, M.Y., Field, R.W., Zhang, K.S., Biogenic silver nanocomposite polyethersulfone UF membranes with antifouling properties (2014) J Membrane Sci, 471, pp. 274-284; Kusumocahyo, S.P., Ambani, S.K., Kusumadewi, S., Sutanto, H., Widiputri, D.I., Kartawiria, I.S., Utilization of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for the development of ultrafiltration membrane (2020) J Environ Chem Eng, 8 (6), pp. 1-11; Horvath, T., Kalman, M., Szabo, T., Roman, K., Zsoldos, G., Szabone, K.M., The mechanical properties of polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polylactic-acid (PDLLA and PLLA), the influence of material structure on forming (2018) IOP Conf Ser-Mater Sci, 426, p. 012018; Bin, Y., Oishi, K., Yoshida, K., Matsuo, M., Mechanical properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate) estimated in terms of orientation distribution of crystallites and amorphous chain segments under simultaneous biaxially stretching (2004) Polym J, 36, pp. 888-898; (2015) Chemical resistance of PET/polyester films, , Polyguard, Ennis; Rajesh, S., Murthy, Z.V.P., Ultrafiltration membranes from waste polyethylene terephthalate and additives: synthesis and characterization (2014) Quim Nova, 37, pp. 653-657; Wu, T.F., Zhou, B.M., Zhu, T., Shi, J., Xu, Z.W., Hu, C.S., Facile and low-cost approach towards a PVDF ultrafiltration membrane with enhanced hydrophilicity and antifouling performance via graphene oxide/water-bath coagulation (2015) RSC Adv, 5, pp. 7880-7889; Hamid, N.A.A., Ismail, A.F., Matsuura, T., Zularisam, A.W., Lau, W.J., Yuliwati, E., Morphological and separation performance study of polysulfone/titanium dioxide (PSF/TiO2) ultrafiltration membranes for humic acid removal (2011) Desalination, 273, pp. 85-92; Li, J.H., Xu, Y.Y., Zhu, L.P., Wang, J.H., Du, C.H., Fabrication and characterization of a novel TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembly membrane with improved fouling resistance (2009) J Membrane Sci, 326, pp. 659-666; Abdel-Karim, A., Leaper, S., Alberto, M., Vijayaraghavan, A., Fan, X.L., Holmes, S.M., High flux and fouling resistant flat sheet polyethersulfone membranes incorporated with graphene oxide for ultrafiltration applications (2018) Chem Eng J, 334, pp. 789-799; Liu, Y., Koops, G.H., Strathmann, H., Characterization of morphology controlled polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes by the addition of polyethylene glycol to the dope and bore liquid solution (2003) J Membrane Sci, 223, pp. 187-199; El-Saftawy, A.A., Elfalaky, A., Ragheb, M.S., Zakhary, S.G., Electron beam induced surface modifications of PET film (2014) Radiat Phys Chem, 102, pp. 96-102; Pereira, A.P.D., da Silva, M.H.P., Lima, E.P., Paula, A.D., Tommasini, F.J., Processing and characterization of PET composites reinforced with geopolymer concrete waste (2017) Mater Res-Ibero-Am J, 20, pp. 411-420; Stoughton, P., (2014) How to dry PET for container application, , Gardner Business Media Inc, Cincinnati; Xi, J.Y., Qiu, X.P., Li, J., Tang, X.Z., Zhu, W.T., Chen, L.Q., PVDF-PEO blends based microporous polymer electrolyte: effect of PEO on pore configurations and ionic conductivity (2006) J Power Sources, 157, pp. 501-506; Poly (Ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (2019) Chemical Retrieval on the Web, ,; Gupta, S., Sharma, K., Saxena, N.S., Temperature dependent mechanical analysis of chalcogenide (CdS, ZnS) coated PET films (2013) Int Schol Res Notices, 2013, p. 952612; Gupta, S., Sharma, K., Structural and thermo-mechanical study of aluminum coated polyethylene terphthalate (PET) film (2016) Int J Innov Res Electron Commun, 3, pp. 7-14; Dardmeh, N., Khosrowshahi, A., Almasi, H., Zandi, M., Study on effect of the polyethylene terephthalate/nanoclay nanocomposite film on the migration of terephthalic acid into the yoghurt drinks simulant (2017) J Food Process Eng, 40; McClure, D.J., Polyester (PET) film as a substrate: A tutorial (2007) Society of Vacuum Coaters 50Th Annual Technical Conference, , Louisville, Apr 28May 3; Abdel-Hady, E.E., Abdel-Hamed, M.O., Gomaa, M.M., Preparation and characterization of commercial polyethyleneterephthalate membrane for fuel cell applications (2013) J Membr Sci Technol, 3, p. 122; Cao, N., Yang, X.M., Fu, Y.H., Effects of various plasticizers on mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of gelatin films (2009) Food Hydrocoll, 23, pp. 729-735; Oh, H.J., Freeman, B.D., McGrath, J.E., Ellison, C.J., Mecham, S., Lee, K.S., Rheological studies of disulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) plasticized with poly (ethylene glycol) for membrane formation (2014) Polymer, 55, pp. 1574-1582; Panda, S.R., De, S., Preparation, characterization and performance of ZnCl2 incorporated polysulfone (PSF)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) blend low pressure nanofiltration membranes (2014) Desalination, 347, pp. 52-65; Mahendran, R., Malaisamy, R., Mohan, D., Preparation, characterization and effect of annealing on performance of cellulose acetate/sulfonated polysulfone and cellulose acetate/epoxy resin blend ultrafiltration membranes (2004) Eur Polym J, 40, pp. 623-633; Pendergast, M.T.M., Nygaard, J.M., Ghosh, A.K., Hoek, E.M.V., Using nanocomposite materials technology to understand and control reverse osmosis membrane compaction (2010) Desalination, 261, pp. 255-263; Eren, E., Sarihan, A., Eren, B., Gumus, H., Kocak, F.O., Preparation, characterization and performance enhancement of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane using PBI as hydrophilic modifier (2015) J Membrane Sci, 475, pp. 1-8; Arthanareeswaran, G., Devi, T.K.S., Raajenthiren, M., Effect of silica particles on cellulose acetate blend ultrafiltration membranes: part I (2008) Sep Purif Technol, 64, pp. 38-47; Park, S.H., Kim, S.H., Poly (ethylene terephthalate) recycling for high value added textiles (2014) Fashion Text, 1, p. 1

Indexed by Scopus

Leave a Comment