Genetic characterization of nodular worm infections in Asian Apes

Yalcindag E., Stuart P., Hasegawa H., Streit A., Doležalová J., Morrogh-Bernard H., Cheyne S.M., Nurcahyo W., Foitová I.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno, 611 37, Czech Republic; The Roslin Institute, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, United Kingdom; Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Tralee, Co. Kerry, Ireland; Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan; Department Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 9, Tübingen, 72076, Germany; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Palackého tř. 1, Brno, Czech Republic; Borneo Nature Foundation, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia; Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Parasitic nematodes of Oesophagostomum spp., commonly known, as ‘nodular worms’ are emerging as the most widely distributed and prevalent zoonotic nematodes. Oesophagostomum infections are well documented in African non-human primates; however, the taxonomy, distribution and transmission of Oesophagostomum in Asian non-human primates are not adequately studied. To better understand which Oesophagostomum species infect Asian non-human primates and determine their phylogeny we analysed 55 faecal samples from 50 orangutan and 5 gibbon individuals from Borneo and Sumatra. Both microscopy and molecular results revealed that semi-wild animals had higher Oesophagostomum infection prevalence than free ranging animals. Based on sequence genotyping analysis targeting the Internal transcribed spacer 2 of rDNA, we report for the first time the presence of O. aculeatum in Sumatran apes. Population genetic analysis shows that there is significant genetic differentiation between Bornean and Sumatran O. aculeatum populations. Our results clearly reveal that O. aculeatum in free-ranging animals have a higher genetic variation than those in semi-wild animals, demonstrating that O. aculeatum is circulating naturally in wildlife and zoonotic transmission is possible. Further studies should be conducted to better understand the epidemiology and dynamics of Oesophagostomum transmission between humans, non-human primates and other wild species and livestock in Southeast Asia. © 2021, The Author(s).


Scientific Reports

Publisher: Nature Research

Volume 11, Issue 1, Art No 7226, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86518-2

Issn: 20452322

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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