Factors associated with the intention to undergo Pap smear testing in the rural areas of Indonesia: a health belief model

Sumarmi S., Hsu Y.-Y., Cheng Y.-M., Lee S.-H.

International Doctoral Program in Nursing, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Tanawali Persada School of Health Science, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia; Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, NCKU 1 University Road, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; School of Nursing, Chung San Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan


Purposes: This study aimed to understand the influence of health beliefs, demographic factors, and health characteristics on the intention to undergo Pap smear testing among women in rural areas of Indonesia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted and 687 married women participated in the study. A convenience sampling was applied to recruit the participants from community health centres in a rural region in Indonesia. Self-reported data using the Health Beliefs Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test was collected to assess the health beliefs. Independent t-tests, simple logistic regressions, and a hierarchical logistic regression with 3 steps were run. Statistical significance for analysis was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the participants was 42 years (SD = 8.4). Among the participants, 81% of the women had never undergone a Pap smear test, and 61% (n = 422) of the women reported a high intention of receiving a Pap smear test. Income and education Health beliefs regarding Pap smear testing were different between women who had low and high intentions to undergo Pap smear testing. Health beliefs, such as perceived benefits, severity, barriers to Pap smear testing, and health motivation for a Pap smear test were associated with the intention to undergo Pap smear testing among rural Indonesian women. Overall, the hierarchical multiple regression with 3 steps containing demographic, health characteristics, and health belief variables accounted for 31% variance of the intention to undergo Pap smear test among the Indonesian rural women. Conclusions: Low screening rates of cervical cancer and high intentions to do the screening exist among rural Indonesian women. Health beliefs significantly affect the rural women’s intention of Pap smear testing in Indonesia. © 2021, The Author(s). Cervical cancer screening; Health beliefs; Pap smear test; Rural


Reproductive Health

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd

Volume 18, Issue 1, Art No 138, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85108998830&doi=10.1186%2fs12978-021-01188-7&partnerID=40&md5=09ccc6369183c9eb5d76346a7e066162

doi: 10.1186/s12978-021-01188-7

Issn: 17424755

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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