Determinants of the quality of life amongst HIV clinic attendees in Malang, Indonesia

Wardojo S.S.I., Huang Y.-L., Chuang K.-Y.

School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Faculty of Health Science, University of Muhammadiyah, Malang, Indonesia; Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical Univeristy, Taipei, Taiwan


Background: As the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLHIV) in Indonesia has increased in recent years, more efforts have been expended to improve their health status. However, in a country where PLHIV are very much stigmatized, there has been little research concerning their quality of life (QoL). Hence, this study aimed to assess the QoL among PLHIV and its associated factors. Findings of this research can contribute to improving the health and wellbeing of PLHIV in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from June to September 2018, at four healthcare centers in Malang, Indonesia. PLHIV, aged 18 years or over, were asked if they would like to participate in this study when they came to a health center to receive services. To protect confidentiality, the healthcare staff at the clinics assisted with recruitment and face-to-face interviews with structured questionnaires. Measurements included sociodemographic, medication-related, social support, HIV-stigma, and QoL variables. Results: In total, 634 PLHIV agreed to participate in this study. A multivariate linear regression analysis showed that being older, having a job, living in an urban area, having better access to healthcare services, adhering to medication, being in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program for more than 1 year, experiencing a lower level of stigma, and receiving more social support were associated with a better QoL. The regression model had an adjusted R2 of 0.21. Conclusions: Findings from this research have significant policy implications. Policies focused on reducing social stigma and promoting medication adherence will likely have a positive impact on the QoL of PLHIV. Increasing public awareness and acceptance of PLHIV in Indonesia remains challenging, but would likely have significant impacts. Furthermore, interventions should also focus on reducing disparities in QoL between PLHIV living in rural areas and those in urban areas. © 2021, The Author(s).

ART adherence; HIV; QoL; Stigma


BMC Public Health

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd

Volume 21, Issue 1, Art No 1272, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11321-7

Issn: 14712458

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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