Comprehensive exposure assessments from the viewpoint of health in a unique high natural background radiation area, Mamuju, Indonesia

Nugraha E.D., Hosoda M., Kusdiana, Untara, Mellawati J., Nurokhim, Tamakuma Y., Ikram A., Syaifudin M., Yamada R., Akata N., Sasaki M., Furukawa M., Yoshinaga S., Yamaguchi M., Miura T., Kashiwakura I., Tokonami S.

Center for Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl Lebak Bulus Raya No 49, Jakarta Selatan, DKI Jakarta 12440, Indonesia; Department of Radiation Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan; Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan; Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194, Japan; Japan Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwadokita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511, Japan; Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0213, Japan; Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan


Mamuju is one of the regions in Indonesia which retains natural conditions but has relatively high exposure to natural radiation. The goals of the present study were to characterize exposure of the entire Mamuju region as a high natural background radiation area (HNBRA) and to assess the existing exposure as a means for radiation protection of the public and the environment. A cross-sectional study method was used with cluster sampling areas by measuring all parameters that contribute to external and internal radiation exposures. It was determined that Mamuju was a unique HNBRA with the annual effective dose between 17 and 115 mSv, with an average of 32 mSv. The lifetime cumulative dose calculation suggested that Mamuju residents could receive as much as 2.2 Sv on average which is much higher than the average dose of atomic bomb survivors for which risks of cancer and non-cancer diseases are demonstrated. The study results are new scientific data allowing better understanding of health effects related to chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposure and they can be used as the main input in a future epidemiology study. © 2021, The Author(s).


Scientific Reports

Publisher: Nature Research

Volume 11, Issue 1, Art No 14578, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93983-2

Issn: 20452322

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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