Chemical compounds and pharmacological activities of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana l.)-updated review

Rizaldy D., Hartati R., Nadhifa T., Fidrianny I.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia


Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical fruit belonging to Guttiferae (syn. Clusiaceae) family. Research on mangosteen has been widely conducted. Also, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies related to mangosteen have been published, indicating its significance and potential usefulness in the research field. This review was constructed by collecting and analyzing more than 50 research articles to explore the phytochemical contents and the medicinal benefits of mangosteen. A significant level of xanthones greatly contributes to the extensive pharmacological activities of mangosteen. Apart from xanthones, mangosteen also contained benzophenones, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Mangosteen had a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-acne, anti-aging, anti-hyperpigmentation, antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiparasitic, and antitumor. Additionally, mangosteen has shown an advantageous activity toward pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, neuropathic pain, and pulmonary fibrosis. This literature review indicated that xanthone in mangosteen had potential and promising to be developed as a drug candidate. More extensive explorations, especially in pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and xanthone targeting effects, are widely open to be carried out for future research. © 2021 by the authors.

Chemical compounds; Mangosteen; Pharmacological activities


Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry

Publisher: AMG Transcend Association

Volume 12, Issue 2, Art No , Page 2503 – 2516, Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.33263/BRIAC122.25032516

Issn: 20695837



Al-Massarani, S.M., El Gamal, A.A., Al-Musayeib, N.M., Mothana, R.A., Basudan, O.A., Al-Rehaily, A.J., Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia Mangostana pericarp and α-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative (2013) Molecules, 18, pp. 10599-10608. ,; Chen, G., Li, Y., Wang, W., Deng, L., Bioactivity and pharmacological properties of α-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit: a review (2018) Expert Opin Ther Pat, 28, pp. 415-427. ,; Ovalle-Magallanes, B., Eugenio-Pérez, D., Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): A comprehensive update (2017) Food Chem Toxicol, 109, pp. 102-122. ,; Devalaraja, S., Jain, S., Yadav, H., Exotic fruits as therapeutic complements for diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome (2011) Food Res Int, 44, pp. 1856-1865. ,; Yoshimura, M., Ninomiya, K., Tagashira, Y., Maejima, K., Yoshida, T., Amakura, Y., Polyphenolic constituents of the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) (2015) J Agric Food Chem, 63, pp. 7670-7674. ,; Tousian Shandiz, H., Razavi, B.M., Hosseinzadeh, H., Review of Garcinia mangostana and its xanthones in metabolic syndrome and related complications (2017) Phyther Res, 31, pp. 1173-1182. ,; Yang, R., Li, P., Li, N., Zhang, Q., Bai, X., Wang, L., Xiao, Y., Yan, J., Xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (2017) Molecules, 22, pp. 1-10. ,; Muzykiewicz, A., Zielonka-Brzezicka, J., Siemak, J., Klimowicz, A., Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in extracts from various parts of fresh and frozen mangosteen (2020) Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 19, pp. 261-270. ,; Yang, J.H., Hwang, E.J., Moon, J., Yoon, J.Y., Kim, J.W., Choi, S., Clinical efficacy of herbal extracts in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris: an 8-week, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial (2019) J Dermatolog Treat, ,; Lubtikulthum, P., Kamanamool, N., Udompataikul, M., A comparative study on the effectiveness of herbal extracts vs 2.5% benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris (2019) J Cosmet Dermatol, 18, pp. 1767-1775. ,; Lueangarun, S., Sriviriyakul, K., Tempark, T., Managit, C., Sithisarn, P., Clinical efficacy of 0.5% topical mangosteen extract in nanoparticle loaded gel in treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris: A 12-week, split-face, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial (2019) J Cosmet Dermatol, 18, pp. 1395-1403. ,; Widowati, W., Ginting, C.N., Lister, I.N.E., Anti-aging Effects of mangosteen peel extract and its phytochemical compounds: antioxidant activity, enzyme inhibition and molecular docking simulation (2020) Trop Life Sci Res, 31, pp. 127-144. ,; Im, A.R., Kim, Y.M., Chin, Y.W., Chae, S., Protective effects of compounds from Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) against UVB damage in HaCaT cells and hairless mice (2017) Int J Mol Med, 40, pp. 1941-1949. ,; Chen, Y., Bian, Y., Wang, J.W., Gong, T.T., Ying, Y.M., Ma, L.F., Shan, W.-G., Zhan, Z.-J., Effects of α-mangostin derivatives on the alzheimer’s disease model of rats and their mechanism: a combination of experimental study and computational systems pharmacology analysis (2020) ACS Omega, 5, pp. 9846-9863. ,; Wang, Y., Xia, Z., Xu, J.R., Wang, Y.X., Hou, L.N., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z., α-Mangostin, a polyphenolic xanthone derivative from mangosteen, attenuates β-amyloid oligomers-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting amyloid aggregation (2012) Neuropharmacol, 62, pp. 871-881. ,; Ashton, M.M., Dean, O.M., Walker, A.J., Bortolasci, C.C., Ng, C.H., Hopwood, M., Harvey, B.H., Berk, M., The therapeutic potential of mangosteen pericarp as an adjunctive therapy for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (2019) Fron Psychi, 10, pp. 1-17. ,; Khaw, K.Y., Chong, C.W., Murugaiyah, V., LC-QTOF-MS analysis of xanthone content in different parts of Garcinia mangostana and its influence on cholinesterase inhibition (2020) J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 35, pp. 1433-1441. ,; Khaw, K.Y., Choi, S.B., Tan, S.C., Wahab, H.A., Chan, K.L., Murugaiyah, V., Prenylated xanthones from mangosteen as promising cholinesterase inhibitors and their molecular docking studies (2014) Phytomedicine, 21, pp. 1303-1309. ,; Lotter, J., Möller, M., Dean, O., Berk, M., Harvey, B.H., Studies on Haloperidol and adjunctive α-mangostin or raw Garcinia mangostana Linn pericarp on bio-behavioral markers in an immune-inflammatory model of schizophrenia in male rats (2020) Fron Psychi, 11, pp. 1-15. ,; Turner, A., McGrath, J.J., Dean, O.M., Dodd, S., Baker, A., Cotton, S.M., Protocol and rationale: A 24-week double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of the efficacy of adjunctive Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Mangosteen) pericarp for schizophrenia (2019) Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci, 17, pp. 297-307. ,; Ghasemzadeh, R.M., Razavi, B.M., Hosseinzadeh, H., Investigating the ameliorative effect of alpha-mangostin on development and existing pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain (2020) Phyther Res, pp. 1-15. ,; Herawati, O., Untari, T., Anggita, M., Artanto, S., Effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel extract as an antibiotic growth promoter on growth performance and antibiotic resistance in broilers (2020) Vet Wor, 13, pp. 796-800. ,; Tatiya-aphiradee, N., Chatuphonprasert, W., Jarukamjorn, K., Anti-inflammatory effect of Garcinia mangostana Linn. pericarp extract in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced superficial skin infection in mice (2019) Biomed Pharmacother, 111, pp. 705-713. ,; Larsuprom, L., Rungroj, N., Lekcharoensuk, C., Pruksakorn, C., Kongkiatpaiboon, S., Chen, C., Sukata, U., In vitro antibacterial activity of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) crude extract against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from canine pyoderma (2019) Vet Dermatol, 30, pp. 487-545. ,; Widyarman, A.S., Lay, S.H., Wendhita, I.P., Tjakra, E.E., Murdono, F.I., Binartha, C.T., Indonesian mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) peel extract inhibits Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Biofilms in vitro (2019) Contemp Clin Dent, 10, pp. 123-128; Alkhuriji, A.F., Majrashi, N.A., Alomar, S., El-Khadragy, M.F., Awad, M.A., Khatab, A.R., Yehia, H.M., The beneficial effect of eco-friendly green nanoparticles using Garcinia mangostana peel extract against pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes in female BALB/c mice (2020) Anim, 10. ,; Ibrahim, S.R.M., Mohamed, G.A., Khayat, M.T.A., Ahmed, S., Abo-Haded, H., α-Amylase inhibition of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana pericarps and their possible use for the treatment of diabetes with molecular docking studies (2019) J Food Biochem, 43, pp. 1-9. ,; Karim, N., Rahman, A., Chanudom, L., Thongsom, M., Tangpong, J., Mangosteen vinegar rind from Garcinia mangostana prevents high-fat diet and Streptozotocin-induced type II diabetes nephropathy and apoptosis (2019) J Food Sci, 84, pp. 1208-1215. ,; Karim, N., Rahman, M.A., Changlek, S., Tangpong, J., Short-time administration of xanthone from Garcinia mangostana fruit pericarp attenuates the hepatotoxicity and renotoxicity of type II diabetes mice (2020) J Am Coll Nutr, 39, pp. 501-510. ,; Lim, Y.K., Yoo, S.Y., Jang, Y.Y., Lee, B.C., Lee, D.S., Kook, J.K., Anti-inflammatory and in vitro bone formation effects of Garcinia mangostana L. and propolis extracts (2020) Food Sci Biotechnol, 29, pp. 539-548. ,; Yiemwattana, I., Kaomongkolgit, R., Alpha-mangostin suppresses IL-6 and IL-8 expression in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (2015) Odontol, 103, pp. 348-355. ,; Wathoni, N., Yuan Shan, C., Yi Shan, W., Rostinawati, T., Indradi, R.B., Pratiwi, R., Muchtaridi, M., Characterization and antioxidant activity of pectin from Indonesian mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) rind (2019) Heliyon, 5, p. 2299. ,; Ibrahim, S.R.M., Mohamed, G.A., Elfaky, M.A., Zayed, M.F., El-Kholy, A.A., Abdelmageed, O.H., Ross, S.A., Mangostanaxanthone VII, a new cytotoxic xanthone from Garcinia mangostana (2018) Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch-Sect C J Biosci, 73, pp. 185-189. ,; Scolamiero, G., Pazzini, C., Bonafè, F., Guarnieri, C., Muscari, C., Effects of α-mangostin on viability, growth and cohesion of multicellular spheroids derived from human breast cancer cell lines (2018) Int J Med Sci, 15, pp. 23-30. ,; See, I., Cheng, G., Ee, L., Yi, V., Jong, M., Teh, S.S., Cespedes Acuna, C.L., Mah, S.H., Cytotoxic activity of phytochemicals from Garcinia mangostana L. and G. benthamiana ( Planch. & Triana ) Pipoly against breast cancer cells cytotoxic activity of phytochemicals from Garcinia (2020) Nat Prod Res, pp. 1-6. ,; Zhang, C., Yu, G., Shen, Y., The naturally occurring xanthone α-mangostin induces ROS-mediated cytotoxicity in non-small scale lung cancer cells (2018) Saudi J Biol Sci, 25, pp. 1090-1095. ,; Mohamed, G.A., Al-Abd, A.M., El-halawany, A.M., Abdallah, H.M., Ibrahim, S.R.M., New xanthones and cytotoxic constituents from Garcinia mangostana fruit hulls against human hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal cancer cell lines (2017) J Ethnopharmacol, 198, pp. 302-312. ,; Wudtiwai, B., Pitchakarn, P., Banjerdpongchai, R., Alpha-mangostin, an active compound in Garcinia mangostana, abrogates anoikis-resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (2018) Toxicol Vitr, 53, pp. 222-232. ,; Fazry, S., Noordin, M.A.M., Sanusi, S., Noor, M.M., Aizat, W.M., Lazim, A.M., Dyari, H.R.E., Lim, Y.C., Cytotoxicity and toxicity evaluation of xanthone crude extract on hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (2018) Toxics, 6. ,; Lee, C.W., Chen, Y.F., Wu, H.H., Lee, O.K., Historical perspectives and advances in mesenchymal stem cell research for the treatment of liver diseases (2018) Gastroenterol, 154, pp. 46-56. ,; Lee, H.N., Jang, H.Y., Kim, H.J., Shin, S.A., Choo, G.S., Park, Y.S., Antitumor and apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) in YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (2016) Int J Mol Med, 37, pp. 939-948. ,; Fukuda, M., Sakashita, H., Hayashi, H., Shiono, J., Miyake, G., Komine, Y., Taira, F., Sakashita, H., Synergism between α-mangostin and TRAIL induces apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity through the mitochondrial pathway (2017) Oncol Rep, 38, pp. 3439-3446. ,; Janardhanan, S., Mahendra, J., Mahendra, L., Devarajan, N., Cytotoxic effects of mangosteen pericarp extracts on oral cancer and cervical cancer cells (2020) Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 21, pp. 2577-2583. ,; Wang, F., Ma, H., Liu, Z., Huang, W., Xu, X., Zhang, X., α-Mangostin inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced skin cancer through inhibiting inflammation and promoting autophagy and apoptosis by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in mice (2017) Biomed Pharmacother, 92, pp. 672-680. ,; Chen, J.J., Long, Z.J., Xu, D.F., Xiao, R.Z., Liu, L.L., Xu, Z.F., Qiu, S.X., Liu, Q., Inhibition of autophagy augments the anticancer activity of α-mangostin in chronic myeloid leukemia cells (2014) Leuk Lymphoma, 55, pp. 628-638. ,; Li, G., Petiwala, S.M., Nonn, L., Johnson, J.J., Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of α-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells (2014) Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 453, pp. 75-80. ,; Tsai, H.H., Chen, C.W., Yu, P.L., Lin, Y.L., Hsieh, R.H., Mangosteen pericarp components alleviate progression of prostatic hyperplasia and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats (2020) Sci Rep, 10, pp. 1-9. ,; Pérez-Rojas, J.M., González-Macías, R., González-Cortes, J., Jurado, R., Pedraza-Chaverri, J., García-López, P., Synergic effect of α-mangostin on the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in a cervical cancer model (2016) Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016. ,; Chae, H.S., You, B.H., Song, J., Ko, H.W., Choi, Y.H., Chin, Y.W., Mangosteen extract prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by suppressing NF-κB activation and inflammation (2017) J Med Food, 20, pp. 727-733. ,; Tatiya-aphiradee, N., Chatuphonprasert, W., Jarukamjorn, K., Ethanolic Garcinia mangostana extract and α-mangostin improve dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis via the suppression of inflammatory and oxidative responses in ICR mice (2021) J Ethnopharmacol, 265, p. 113384. ,; Choi, Y.H., Bae, J.K., Chae, H.S., Kim, Y.M., Sreymom, Y., Han, L., Jang, H.Y., Chin, Y.-W., α-mangostin regulates hepatic steatosis and obesity through SirT1-AMPK and PPARγ pathways in high-fat diet-induced obese mice (2015) J Agric Food Chem, 63, pp. 8399-8406. ,; Sugiyanto, Z., Yohan, B., Hadisaputro, S., Dharmana, E., Suharti, C., Winarto, Djamiatun, K., Sasmono, R.T., Inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin to dengue virus replication and cytokines expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (2019) Nat Products Bioprospect, 9, pp. 345-349. ,; Tarasuk, M., Songprakhon, P., Chimma, P., Sratongno, P., Na-Bangchang, K., Yenchitsomanus, P.-T., Alpha-mangostin inhibits both dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression (2017) Virus Res, 240, pp. 180-189. ,; Markowicz, J., Uram, Ł., Sobich, J., Mangiardi, L., Maj, P., Rode, W., Antitumor and anti-nematode activities of α-mangostin (2019) Eur J Pharmacol, 863, p. 172678. ,; Li, R.S., Xu, G.H., Cao, J., Liu, B., Xie, H.F., Ishii, Y., Zhang, C., Alpha-mangostin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice partly through activating adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (2019) Front Pharmacol, 10, p. 1305. ,; Rana, M.N., Tangpong, J., Rahman, M.A., Xanthones protects lead-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) via activating Nrf-2 and modulating NF-kB, MAPK pathway (2020) Biochem Biophys Report, 21, p. 100718. ,

Indexed by Scopus

Leave a Comment