Cellulose nanocrystal (Cnc) capsules from oil palm empty fruit bunches (opefb)

Soetaredjo F.E., Santoso S.P., Waworuntu G.L., Darsono F.L.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Kalijudan 37, Surabaya, 60114, Indonesia; Faculty of Medicine, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Kalisari Selatan No. 1, Surabaya, 60112, Indonesia; Faculty of Pharmacy, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Kalisari Selatan No. 1, Surabaya, 60112, Indonesia


The raw material used for this NCC production was oil palm empty bunches (OPEFB), currently waste from oil palm plantations. Delignification of OPEFB was carried out using 2 N NaOH solution at 70oC for 6 hours. NCC maximum yield from OPEFB is 62.1% (dry cellulose basis) obtained at a concentration of 54% sulfuric acid and a temperature of 50oC. The addition of plasticizers (glycerol and PEG) reduced the elastic modulus of NCC capsules from 7951.4 MPa to 4758 MPa (glycerol) and 3225 (PEG). The addition of glycerol and PEG did not affect the disintegration time of NCC capsules. NCC capsules have a release capability similar to the commercially available gelatin capsules. At 14 minutes, discharge reached about 43%, and it becomes constant after 18 minutes. © 2021 by the authors. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Capsules; Gelatin; Nanocrystalline cellulose


Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry

Publisher: AMG Transcend Association

Volume 12, Issue 2, Art No , Page 2013 – 2021, Page Count

Journal Link: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85110105768&doi=10.33263%2fBRIAC122.20132021&partnerID=40&md5=01fb816833282d38a5d13c4d12db2f48

doi: 10.33263/BRIAC122.20132021

Issn: 20695837



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