Automatic segmentation of skin cells in multiphoton data using multi-stage merging

Prinke P., Haueisen J., Klee S., Rizqie M.Q., Supriyanto E., König K., Breunig H.G., Piątek Ł.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau, 98693, Germany; Division Biostatistics and Data Science, Department of General Health Studies, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Dr. Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30, Krems, 3500, Austria; Informatics Engineering Program, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia; IJN-UTM Cardiovascular Engineering Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; Department of Biophotonics and Laser Technology, Saarland University, Campus A5.1, Saarbrücken, 66123, Germany; JenLab GmbH, Johann-Hittorf-Straße 8, Berlin, 12489, Germany; Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Information Technology and Management, H. Sucharskiego 2 Str, Rzeszów, 35-225, Poland


Abstract

We propose a novel automatic segmentation algorithm that separates the components of human skin cells from the rest of the tissue in fluorescence data of three-dimensional scans using non-invasive multiphoton tomography. The algorithm encompasses a multi-stage merging on preprocessed superpixel images to ensure independence from a single empirical global threshold. This leads to a high robustness of the segmentation considering the depth-dependent data characteristics, which include variable contrasts and cell sizes. The subsequent classification of cell cytoplasm and nuclei are based on a cell model described by a set of four features. Two novel features, a relationship between outer cell and inner nucleus (OCIN) and a stability index, were derived. The OCIN feature describes the topology of the model, while the stability index indicates segment quality in the multi-stage merging process. These two new features, combined with the local gradient magnitude and compactness, are used for the model-based fuzzy evaluation of the cell segments. We exemplify our approach on an image stack with 200 × 200 × 100 μm3, including the skin layers of the stratum spinosum and the stratum basale of a healthy volunteer. Our image processing pipeline contributes to the fully automated classification of human skin cells in multiphoton data and provides a basis for the detection of skin cancer using non-invasive optical biopsy. © 2021, The Author(s).


Journal

Scientific Reports

Publisher: Nature Research

Volume 11, Issue 1, Art No 14534, Page – , Page Count


Journal Link: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85110705524&doi=10.1038%2fs41598-021-93682-y&partnerID=40&md5=0ee9f7a2a8b64dfcd4a8791bffe8804c

doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93682-y

Issn: 20452322

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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