Allelic diversity of merozoite surface protein genes (msp1 and msp2) and clinical manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Aceh, Indonesia

Jamil K.F., Pratama N.R., Marantina S.S., Harapan H., Kurniawan M.R., Zanaria T.M., Hutagalung J., Rozi I.E., Asih P.B.S., Supargiyono, Syafruddin D.

Division of Tropical Medicine & Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Malaria and Vector Resistance Unit, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia; Medical Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Recident of Internal Medicine Education Specialist Program Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Department of Parasitology School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD), Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; Center for Tropical Medicine/Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia


Background: The malaria control programme in Indonesia has successfully brought down malaria incidence in many parts in Indonesia, including Aceh Province. Clinical manifestation of reported malaria cases in Aceh varied widely from asymptomatic, mild uncomplicated to severe and fatal complications. The present study aims to explore the allelic diversity of merozoite surface protein 1 gene (msp1) and msp2 among the Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Aceh Province and to determine their potential correlation with the severity of malaria clinical manifestation. Methods: Screening of over 500 malaria cases admitted to the hospitals in 11 districts hospital within Aceh Province during 2013–2015, identified 90 cases of P. falciparum mono-infection without any co-morbidity. The subjects were clinically phenotyped and parasite DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified for the msp1 and msp2 allelic subfamilies. Results: Analysis of clinical manifestation revealed that fever-chill is the most frequent symptom. Based on WHO criteria showed 19 cases were classified as severe and 71 as mild malaria. Analysis of msp1 gene revealed the presence of K1 allele subfamily in 34 subjects, MAD20 in 42 subjects, RO33 in 1 subject, and mixed allelic of K1 + MAD20 in 5 subjects, K1 + RO33 in 4 subjects, and MAD20 + RO33 in 4 subjects. Analysis of msp2 gene revealed 34 subjects carried the FC27 allelic subfamily, 37 subjects carried the 3D7 and 19 subjects carried the mixed FC27 + 3D7. Analysis of multiplicity of infection revealed that msp1 alleles is slightly higher than msp2 with the mean of MOI were 2.69 and 2.27, respectively. Statistical analysis to determine the association between each clinical manifestation and msp1 and msp2 alleles revealed that liver function abnormal value was associated with the msp2 mixed alleles (odds ratio (OR):0.13; 95%CI: 0.03–0.53). Mixed msp1 of K1 + RO33 was associated with severe malaria (OR: 28.50; 95%CI: 1.59–1532.30). Conclusion: This study found a strong association between severe malaria in Aceh with subjects carrying the msp1 mixed alleles of K1 and RO33. The liver function abnormal value associated with the msp2 mixed allelic subfamilies. Further study in different geographic areas is recommended. © 2021, The Author(s).

Allele; Clinical manifestations; Malaria; msp1; msp2; Plasmodium falciparum


Malaria Journal

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd

Volume 20, Issue 1, Art No 182, Page – , Page Count

Journal Link:

doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03719-w

Issn: 14752875

Type: All Open Access, Gold, Green


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